THE EARTH: "There can be little doubt that throughout
this ch the wd 'eretz' sb read Land (16 times). Certainly in its primary ref it
is the Land of Israel whose misery is being foretold (in future tense, in Heb).
But, significantly, Jerusalem itself is not mentioned -- appropriate enough, for
it was the only city in Judah not to suffer directly in the Assyrian campaign"
(WIsa 256). Not, of course, a complete devastation of the surface of the whole
RUIN ITS FACE: Lit, "turn it upside down": cp 2Ki
21:13; Eze 21:27 (overturn).
SCATTER ITS INHABITANTS: In Hezekiah's day, only the
first taste of what was to come on Jewry, and is yet to come on them (Deu
"The long catalogue of all segments of society all brought to
a common level of misery is a highly effective characteristic of Isaiah's
writing; cp Isa 2:12-16; 3:1-3,18-24... Contemporary Hosea has a similar
description: Hos 4:3,6,9" (WIsa 256).
"It is a depressing picture, with the nobility suffering as
much as the rest. God's Holy Land is defiled by violence and by heedless
transgression of God's laws (Lev 26:46), by gross neglect of His Passover
ordinance (sw Exo 12:14,17,24) and a callous disregard of the covenant made
between Jehovah and Israel at Mt Sinai (Exo 24). The most obvious token of this
was the shutting of the temple by Hezek's evil father" (WIsa 256,257).
THE EARTH IS DEFILED BY ITS PEOPLE: Isa 26:21 suggests
that the Land's inhabitants defiled the Land by shedding the blood of their
fellow Jews (cp Num 35:33,34).
AND BROKEN THE EVERLASTING COVENANT: If the Noahic
covenant, may mean the prohibition against wrongful bloodshed (Gen 9:7) -- of
which Israel was guilty (Isa 1:15,21; 4:4). Or may ref more esp the LM and its
regulations prohibiting murder (Exo 20:13; Num 35:6-34), which are an extension
of the Noahic mandate.
BURNED UP... VERY FEW ARE LEFT: The dross of Israel's
guilt was to be burned out (Isa 1:31; 5:24; 9:18,19; 10:16,17)... Assyrian
invaders would ruthlessly fire towns and villages" (WIsa 257).
THE NEW WINE... VINE...: God removed Jews' means of
sacrifice and worship -- because of their disregard for Him (cp Joel
TAMBOURINES: Used in religious services: Psa 81:2; 1Sa
10:5; Exo 15:20 -- esp to celebrate victories.
A SONG: The joyful music of the feasts would cease (Amo
6:5); only the chant of lamentation would remain (Amo 8:10).
BITTER: Cp Deu 32:33.
RUINED: Heb "tohu", as in Gen 1:2:
THE ENTRANCE TO EVERY HOUSE IS BARRED: Barricaded
against the time when the enemy will threaten to batter its gates to pieces (v
But ct this with Isa 25:6-9; 35:1... This is not the permanent
GLEANINGS: Same figure in Isa 17:4-6; 27:2; Mic 7:1,2.
(Does the "harvest" motif here suggest that the last terrible 3 1/2 year
tribulation period for Israel begins at time of Feast of Tabernacles -- ie
harvest -- and concludes at time of Passover?)
THEY SHOUT FOR JOY: Seemingly entirely out of place
with earlier vv, but fully explained by the sudden and total overthrow of
FROM THE WEST THEY ACCLAIM...: This last phrase: "The
water of the sea shall be troubled" (LXX). Cited Luk 21:25. Or... as NIV, the
loud acclamation and rejoicing -- but from east and west -- at the defeat of
Sennacherib (2Ch 32:23; Isa 25:3) [ // v 15 also].
EAST: Heb "orim" -- transltd "fires" in AV, but prob a
ref to the dawn, or the east.
ISLANDS OF THE SEA: The coastlands (and poss islands of
Medit), to the west. Together, east and west!
GLORY TO THE RIGHTEOUS ONE: Not used of God Himself;
thus a ref to Hezekiah -- "raised up" from the "dead", so to speak!
BUT I SAID, 'I WASTE AWAY... THE TREACHEROUS
BETRAY!...": Even in the midst of victory, there is observed the terrible
devastation of the Land at the hand of Sennacherib -- the result of the cowardly
betrayal of Isaiah's (and Hezekiah's) ideals by self-serving politicians (see
Isa 21:2; 33:1) and turncoat Arab mercenaries (Isa 25:10; 34:5)!
THE TREACHEROUS BETRAY: In LD, refs esp to Israel's
Arab neighbors: Jer 48:42,43; Psa 83 (the Arabs who betray their
TERROR... PIT... SNARE: Heb "pachad, pachath, pach".
"Lest that day come upon you as a snare" (Luk 21:35).
TERROR: Sw used about Uzziah's earthquake: Isa
SNARE: A trap in which animals are caught. But the sw
occurs in Psa 11:6 re a storm.
DRUNKARD: "Surfeiting and drunkenness" (Luk
LIKE A HUT IN THE WIND: A frail shack battered and
wrecked by a hurricane.
POWERS IN... HEAVENS.. .AND.. .ON THE EARTH: Two
"tsabaoth", or kinds of armies: in heaven (air force, missiles) and on earth
(army, navy). A perfect anticipation of modern warfare.
Cited Mat 24:29: sun darkened... moon shall not give her
light. The glory of the resurrected Christ outshines sun (Isa 4:5; 60:1,3; Mal
4:2; Act 26:13).
ELDERS: The "fathers" (Gen 28:4; Joh 8:56), incl David
LD: Here is pictured "the long-overdue repentance of
the nation, its self-humiliation before the Man -- whom, formerly, they would
not have to reign over them. At that time not only those who are the Lord's true
temple, his mount Zion, but also the entire city of Jerusalem will gladly
receive Jesus as 'the Lord our Righteousness.' And with them there will be the
'ancients' of the race, the Fathers: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, David -- men of
faith who received promises, believed them with heart and soul, but who have
slept through long centuries till the day of fulfillment. Here, and not here
only (Isa 25:8; 26:19) is Isaiah's confident doctrine of the resurrection" (WIsa