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Bible Commentary
Isaiah

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OVERVIEW

Author: Isaiah

Time: 740 – 690 BC

Summary: Isaiah ministered in the southern kingdom of Judah during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah. He deals with the coming judgment on Judah due to its idolatry and apostasy. He urges the kings and the people to put their trust in God rather than in alliances with other nations. He comforts his people with the realization that God loves those who are faithful to Him and keep His commandments. He speaks of the future Messiah who would come to redeem the nation and restore the Kingdom.

Key verse: "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace" (Isa 9:6).

Outline

THE BOOK OF JUDGMENT (Isa 1–39)

1. Rebuke and promise: Isa 1:1 – 6:13

a) Rebellion confronted with judgment and grace: Isa 1:1–31
b) Punishment for sin as preparation for glory: Isa 2:1 – 4:6
c) Judgment and exile in store for the nation: Isa 5:1–30
d) Isaiah's unique commission from God: Isa 6:1–13

2. Prophecies about Judah: Isa 7:1 – 12:6

a) Ahaz warned not to fear the Arameans and Israelites: Isa 7:1–25
b) Isaiah's son and David's son: Isa 8:1 – 9:7
c) Judgement against Israel: Isa 9:8 – 10:4
d) Assyrian empire crushed; glorious empire to come: Isa 10:5 – 12:6

3. Judgment against the nations: Isa 13:1 – 23:18

a) Against Babylon and its ruler: Isa 13:1 – 14:27
b) Against Philistia: Isa 14:28–32
c) Against Moab: Isa 15:1 – 16:14
d) Against Aram and Israel: Isa 17:1–14
e) Against Cush: Isa 18:1–7
f) Against Egypt: Isa 19:1 – 20:6
g) Against Babylon: Isa 21:1–10
h) Against Edom: Isa 21:11–12
i) Against Arabia: Isa 21:13–17
j) Against Jerusalem: Isa 22:1–25
k) Against Tyre: Isa 23:1–18

4. Judgment and promise: Isa 24:1 – 27:13

a) Universal judgment upon universal sin: Isa 24:1–23
b) God praised as deliverer and comforter of Zion: Isa 25:1– 26:21
c) Oppressors to be punished but God's people preserved: Isa 27:1–13

5. Six woes upon the unbelievers of Israel: Isa 28:1 – 33:24

a) Woe to Ephraim (Samaria) and to Judah: Isa 28:1–29
b) Woe to Jerusalem: Isa 29:1–14
c) Woe to those who rely on foreign alliances: Isa 29:15–24
d) Woe to the obstinate nation: Isa 30:1–33
e) Woe to those who rely on Egypt: Isa 31:1 – 32:20
f) Woe to Assyria -- but blessing for God's people: Isa 33:1–24

6. More prophecies of judgment and promise: Isa 34:1 – 35:10

a) Destruction of the nations: Isa 34:1–17
b) Blessing on the way of holiness: Isa 35:1–10

7. Historical interlude: Isa 36:1 – 39:8

a) Jerusalem preserved from Assyrian threat: Isa 36:1 – 37:38
b) God extends Hezekiah's life: Isa 38:1–22
c) The Babylonian exile predicted: Isa 39:1–8

THE BOOK OF COMFORT (Isa 40–66)

8. The deliverance and restoration of Israel: Isa 40:1–48:22

a) Comfort for God's people: Isa 40:1–41:29
b) The Lord's servant: Isa 42:1–25
c) The regathering and renewal of Israel: Isa 43:1–44:5
d) The only God: Isa 44:6–47:15
e) The Lord's exhortations to his people: Isa 48:1–22

9. The servant's ministry and Israel's restoration: Isa 49:1–57:21

a) The call and mission of the servant: Isa 49:1–7
b) The restoration of Zion: Isa 49:8–26
c) Israel's sin and the servant's obedience: Isa 50:1–11
d) Everlasting salvation for Zion: Isa 51:1–52:12
e) The suffering and glory of the Lord's servant: Isa 52:13–53:12
f) The future glory of Zion: Isa 54:1–17
g) The Lord's call to salvation: Isa 55:1–56:8
h) The condemnation of the wicked in Israel: Isa 56:9–57:21

10. Everlasting deliverance and everlasting judgement: Isa 58:1–66:24

a) False and true worship: Isa 58:1–14
b) Zion's confession and redemption: Isa 59:1–21
c) Zion's peace, prosperity, restoration and glory: Isa 60:1 – 63:6
d) Prayer for divine deliverance: Isa 63:7–64:12
e) The Lord's answer: mercy and judgment: Isa 65:1–66:24

(Also see Lesson, Isa, thematic breakdown)


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