The Agora
Bible Commentary
1 Samuel

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1 Samuel 22

1Sa 22:1

1Sa 22: Background: Here insert 2Sa 23:13-17: David's 3 mighty men and the pool of water. Psa 34 written here: "When he changed his appearance before Achish, who drove him away..."

THE CAVE: Cp Heb 11:38.

ADULLAM: Heb "retreat", "resting place". Here David composed Psa 57; 142. Cp Christ: without a true resting place or home or security (Mat 8:20: Joh 7:53; 8:1).

HIS FATHER'S HOUSEHOLD: In Bethlehem (1Sa 16:1).

1Sa 22:2

ALL THOSE...: Here is the beginning of David's new flock -- these were the "sheep" he was to protect from the beasts of prey!

In the fulfillment of this Old Testament type, the New Testament finds he poor of this world, "rich in faith", being called to follow the LORD's anointed (1Co 1:26-29). "Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest" (Mat 11:28,29). And they came, "outside the camp, bearing the disgrace he bore" (Heb 13:13).

"What we know of David in this context, is that his family heritage via a Canaanite and Moabite, had quite an impact on his view of God's plan for Jew and Gentile. He seemed to appreciate better than any before or after, the full import of the promise, 'in your seed shall ALL nations be blessed.' His appreciation of his elevation to kingship over ALL Israel was shown by his conquest of Jerusalem and the realization that he was its first believing king since Melchizedek. David's proselytizing of Gentiles is quite extraordinary and his second visit to Goliath's home town resulted in quite a crop of faithful adherents to the Covenant. It also explains his building of a tabernacle in Jerusalem with the ark as its only piece of furniture and why James later (Acts 15) speaks of the rebuilding of the tabernacle of David (Amos 9) as being an indication of God's call to and purpose with Gentiles" (Ken Chalmers).

IN DEBT: Had Saul given their lands and properties to his henchmen?

ABOUT FOUR HUNDRED MEN: "Do not be afraid, little flock..." (Luk 12:32).

1Sa 22:3

MIZPAH: A town not otherwise mentioned in the Bible. prob west by southwest of Medeba in northern Moab.

IN MOAB: Note David's family connections with Moab, through Ruth. The Philistines were now encamped at Bethlehem (2Sa 23:14), and David's family could not safely return there (1Sa 22:1). Even in his sore trials, David showed concern for his parents (cp Christ in Joh 19:26,27).

1Sa 22:5

DO NOT STAY IN THE STRONGHOLD. GO INTO THE LAND OF JUDAH: 'Do not continue in hiding in Moab; return to your men!' Return to the land of promise without fear (cp Abraham, Jacob, Joseph and Mary). God had work for David in Judah: 1Sa 23.

FOREST: Or "city" (LXX). Hereth is unknown today.

1Sa 22:6

SPEAR IN HAND: Illustrating his blood-thirsty intentions, and the fact that he took the case of David very personally.

1Sa 22:7

LISTEN, MEN OF BENJAMIN!: Stress on tribal loyalty: they were not of Judah, as was David.

1Sa 22:8

WHEN MY SON MAKES A COVENANT WITH THE SON OF JESSE: There was a league of friendship between the two, not a league of conspiracy against Saul.

1Sa 22:12

SON OF AHITUB: A contemptuous address to the man 2nd in rank in all of Israel.

1Sa 22:14

WHO OF ALL YOUR SERVANTS IS AS LOYAL AS DAVID...?: Examples of faithfulness in service: Samuel (1Sa 3:20); David (1Sa 22:14); the temple overseers (2Ki 12:15); the workers (2Ch 34:12); Hananiah (Neh 7:2); Abraham (Neh 9:8); the treasurers (Neh 13:13); Daniel (Dan 6:4); Timothy (1Co 4:17); Epaphras (Col 1:7); Tychicus (Col 4:7); Onesimus (Col 4:9); Paul (1Ti 1:12); Moses (Heb 3:2,5); Gaius (3Jo 1:5); Jesus Christ (Rev 1:5); Antipas (Rev 2:13).

Cp Luk 16:10; 2Ch 31:12.

1Sa 22:21

Here David wrote Psa 52; 53.

1Sa 22:23

YOU WILL BE SAFE WITH ME: To fulfill 1Sa 2:36.

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