David as a type of the Messiah:
* a. The shepherd boy who laid down his life for his
* b. The young man anointed king by a great prophet.
* c. The brave warrior who went down into the "valley of
death" and slew the great giant who enslaved his people –- when all Israel
cowered in their tents.
* d. The man who, because of his great deeds and sterling
character, was envied and hated by the reigning king.
* e. The "criminal" who was chased and persecuted, and his
life threatened, because he was God's Anointed.
* f. The man who at last emerged in triumph from a cave to be
crowned head over all Israel.
* g. The man who gathered many faithful Gentiles, and later
gave them positions of great authority in Israel.
* h. The king who expanded his kingdom in all directions,
until it won the allegiance of all surrounding nations and became a great
* i. And the king who received the promise of a "Son" [not
Solomon!] who would sit on his throne forever.
1Sa 16: "It is time for the king of God's appointment to be
revealed to Israel. Unlike the king the people selected, this one would come
from the tribe of Judah, to whom was committed the lawgiving. He was not found
seeking for donkeys, as was Saul (1Sa 9:3-5), but as a keeper of sheep. Again,
unlike Saul, he was not tall (v 7), not in the appearance that they sought (cp
Isa 53:2). He was golden-haired, bright-eyes, and graceful in appearance (1Sa
16:12), strong (Psa 18:33,34), staff in hand (1Sa 17:40), gifted in music (1Sa
16:18), possessor of the Holy Spirit (v 18). He was a man after God's own heart
(1Sa 13:14), not because he is without fault, but because he bows to God in
faith. He is not perfect, but he is not lawless, not a rebel, like his
predecessor. He submits in truth of heart to the divine chastening Hand upon his
life. He 'despised not' Yahweh's discipline (Heb 12:5-13). With David before us,
there is no time for mourning for Saul (1Sa 16:1); the past must be forgotten,
and there must be a pressing on to the glory ahead. As a type of Christ, David
was made perfect through suffering, whereas Christ was shown to be perfect
through trial (Heb 5:8). Both pursued after God (Psa 42:1)" (GEM).
"I have found David my servant; with my sacred oil I have
anointed him" (Psa 89:20). "He chose David his servant and took him from the
sheep pens; from tending the sheep he brought him to be the shepherd of his
people Jacob, of Israel his inheritance. And David shepherded them with
integrity of heart; with skillful hands he led them" (Psa 78:70-72).
3 anointings in the OT: Typical of Christ in his 3 capacities:
Lev 8:12, as priest; 1Ki 19:16, as prophet; and 1Sa 16:1, as king.
SAUL WILL HEAR ABOUT IT AND KILL ME: Samuel's fear of
Saul. Cp Jeremiah's fear (Jer 1:6), Moses' fear (Exo 4:1).
THE ELDERS OF THE TOWN TREMBLED WHEN THEY MET HIM: Cp
the shepherds, also of Bethlehem, who feared at the appearance of the great
light (Mat 2).
Like the messengers who appeared to the shepherds of
Bethlehem, Samuel reassures them: a mission of peace, a special son, a king, a
THE SACRIFICE: Sacrifice was still offered in various
places in Israel, before the centralization of worship in temple of
OR HIS HEIGHT: Cp 1Sa 17:4.
MAN LOOKS AT THE OUTWARD APPEARANCE, BUT THE LORD LOOKS AT
THE HEART: "Have you checked the labels on your grocery items lately? You
may be getting less than you thought. According to USNWR, some manufacturers are
selling us the same size packages we are accustomed to, but they are putting
less of the product in the box. For example, a box of well-known detergent that
once held 61 ounces now contains only 55. Same size box, less soap.
How something is wrapped doesn't always show us what's on the
inside. That's true with people as well. We can wrap ourselves up in the same
packaging every day -- nice clothes, big smile, friendly demeanor -- yet still
be less than what we appear to be."
SEVEN OF HIS SONS: Thus David is the 8th son (cp 1Sa
17:12). 8 = a new beginning. His genealogy in Rth 4:18-22. (David is also refd
to as 7th son: 1Ch 2:15.)
HE IS TENDING THE SHEEP: Even before his name is
revealed, David is described as a shepherd! "Unlike many occupations of the
twentieth century, that of being a shepherd in the chosen land gave scope for
the mind which wished to worship God and to keep itself unsullied by the world
without. Even so, the will of God brought David from the pastoral peace of the
sheepfold into the world of men. This was essential for that development of
character which has endeared David to generations of followers of the call of
God. It is impossible for most of us to spend our days in the hills around some
quiet village. Our lot is cast in meeting people and situations, in making the
daily choice between this world and the next, in living a whole life in a
fragmented world. The fact that David passed from quiet pastures and still
waters into the tumult of wars and fightings has rendered him the companion of
all of us" (TMD 24). Like Moses, David was another shepherd hidden in the
wilderness, unknown to the public eye, until the time for his work to begin.
Other shepherds: Abel, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob. "Feed my sheep" (Joh 21; cp 1Pe
"My lover is radiant and ruddy, outstanding among ten
thousand... His mouth is sweetness itself; he is altogether lovely. This is my
lover, this my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem" (Song 5:10,16). Typical of
3 anointings of David: privately, at Bethlehem; next, by men
of Judah (2Sa 2:4); and finally, by elders of Israel (2Sa 5:3).
While David received the Spirit (v 13), Saul lost the
AN EVIL SPIRIT FROM THE LORD TORMENTED HIM: "No man
needs a heavier chastisement from God than the letting loose of his own passions
upon him." God gives men over to their own sins and lusts (Rom 1:28; 2Th
"He who loves a pure heart and whose speech is gracious will
have the king for his friend" (Pro 22:11).
DAVID WOULD TAKE HIS HARP AND PLAY: Prob also singing
sacred pss he had composed. David grows in favor with God and man (cp Luk 2:52).
From sheepfold to throne room (Psa 23) -- the providence of God. The anointed
king, David, came as a servant (cp Phi 2:5-10). In capacity of servant, David
may observe royal court, see its corruption, and learn its needs.