The Agora
Bible Commentary
1 Samuel

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

1 Samuel 13

1Sa 13:1

1Sa 13: "Only two years into his reign found the weakness of Saul as king over Israel. He brings disgrace upon his family and distress in the nation by a rash demand. As a result Samuel warns Saul that he is to be replaced as monarch. The record continues: [1] Jonathan attacks the Philistines (vv 1-4). [2] The Philistines mass their forces (v 5). The tremendous force is so much out of proportion to the cavalry, that is has been thought that the 30,000 should be listed as 3,000. [3] Saul's forces desert (vv 6,7). [4] Saul's faith fails (vv 8-10). The consistent weakness of the king is again manifested as each day passes. [5] Saul is rejected as Yahweh's representative (vv 11-14). The smoking sacrifices, the small group of fear-stricken men, the worried king, now had to face the anger of the stern resolute prophet. [6] Saul in Gibeah(vv 15,16). The triumph of the Philistines made Saul a refugee in his own kingdom. [7] The Philistines ravage the land (vv 17,18). Bands of the enemy ranged the countryside giving themselves over to pillage and destruction, bringing the people into fear. [8] Israel's humiliation (vv 19-23). The whole nation is now destitute as they saw their enemy take courage and dominate. The folly of the king had led his people into fear" (GEM).

1Sa 13:11

WHAT HAVE YOU DONE?: Cp Gen 3:13r.

WHEN I SAW THAT THE MEN WERE SCATTERING: Saul was trusting in numbers rather than in God.

1Sa 13:14

YOUR KINGDOM WILL NOT ENDURE: Saul was still king, but his descendants would not rule Israel. Even Saul himself was later rejected (1Sa 15:23) in favor of David. But had Saul not failed, even then his grandsons, etc (perhaps sons of daughter Michal by David) might have reigned in Israel. Note, however, that Michal was childless (2Sa 6:23) -- so that there was no chance of any of Saul's line continuing on the throne in their role as sons of David.

See article, Your kingdom shall not continue.

1Sa 13:20

We must sharpen all our "weapons" for the spiritual warfare (Eph 6:10-18). Even the mundane tools of the everyday world may be put to use as "weapons" in this "warfare".

1Sa 13:21

TWO THIRDS OF A SHEKEL: "A pim" (mg). Recent excavations found that an ancient coin weight called a "pym," which was used exclusively during the Israelite settlement period, was apparently the payment for the service of sharpening. Cp LB 322.

Previous Index Next