Vv 1-4: "The admiration which all the nation felt for David
because of his exploit against Goliath was shared by Jonathan, and this quickly
ripened into the warm friendship which has now been proverbial for millennia.
There was in Jonathan none of the corrosive jealousy which was to be the bane
and ruin of his father. Clearly, he loved David, not only because of bravery in
face of danger (for he himself was every bit as brave), but because in creasing
acquaintance led him to appreciate the fine qualities of David's character more
"Yet even this does not fully explain such an eternal selfless
friendship, for all true friendships are forged by influences and personal
characteristics past defining. Somehow, in ways utterly inexplicable,
personalities blend and a bond is fashioned to last forever.
"This friendship of Jonathan for David was surely the most
selfless thing in all the OT. In positive self-giving, David contributed
relatively little to their fine partnership. But from the very beginning
Jonathan lost himself completely in a consuming eagerness to further his
friend's well-being in every possible way.
"Saul was at first eager to have the brave upstanding young
fellow as an officer in his army (1Sa 14:52), and Jonathan quickly saw David's
need of suitable equipment and accoutrements of war (which were not easily come
by: 1Sa 13:19-22), so without any concern for himself he forthwith insisted that
David have the best of his own. Nothing could be too good for this stalwart son
of Bethlehem who was now his friend and a rising star in Israel" (SSD
JONATHAN BECAME ONE IN SPIRIT WITH DAVID: Was it at
this time that he learned of David's call and anointing?
Jonathan strips away ALL his tokens of royalty, and gives them
to David. (David had refused Saul's offers of weaponry, but he accepts
Jonathan is acting as though he had been defeated by Goliath,
and then stripped of all his armaments and clothes; he sees himself now as
"vanquished" by David... vanquished and now his servant!
AND DID IT SO SUCCESSFULLY: Or "wisely" (NIV mg).
"Whatever your hand finds to do, do it with all your might" (Ecc 9:10). Cp Col
3:23. "Wise as serpents" (Mat 10:16). "My servant will act wisely" (Isa 52:13).
The elements of wisdom: humility (Pro 16:18-20), trust in God (Pro 6:20),
restraint of words (Pro 10:19; 16:23), diligence (Pro 10:5), and teachableness
Notice that David's righteous behavior precipitates his great
trials. He has done nothing wrong, and yet he is suffering for it (cp Act
WHAT MORE CAN HE GET BUT THE KINGDOM?: Saul now
remembers Samuel's prophecy (1Sa 13:14; 15:23). Note the quick -- but great --
change from 1Sa 16:21.
AN EVIL SPIRIT FROM GOD: When we follow ways of sin,
God turns from us, and hardens our heart.
HE WAS PROPHESYING IN HIS HOUSE: Under the influence of
the evil spirit (cp 1Jo 4:1). Thus Saul tries to take David offguard.
We have more to fear from our "friends" than from our
ALL ISRAEL AND JUDAH: A sort of natural division by
inclination and geography, long before the political division.
FOR SAUL SAID TO HIMSELF, "I WILL NOT RAISE A HAND AGAINST
HIM": David was now too popular for Saul to attempt to kill him personally.
Cp Christ: they feared to take him openly because of the people.
LET THE PHILISTINES DO THAT: Thus Saul pronounces his
own fate (1Sa 31:1-5)!
MY FATHER'S CLAN IN ISRAEL: Jesse was prob poor, and a
social outcast because of his ancestress Ruth, of Moab (cp v 23). God gives
grace to humble (Jam 4:6), "lowly in heart" (Mat 12:29).
This was done to arouse David's anger.
A POOR MAN: Cp v 18. David was unable to bring a
sufficient dowry (cp v 25). Cp Gen 29:18; 34:12; Exo 22:16,17.
A HUNDRED PHILISTINE FORESKINS: To demonstrate that
David had killed Philistines and not Jews. Such an atrocity would greatly offend
the Philistines, and make them David's sworn enemies.
MICHAL: Fem of "Michael", ie "one like El". The younger
daughter of Saul, king of Israel (1Sa 14:49), and the wife, first of David (1Sa
18:27), then of Palti/Paltiel (1Sa 25:44; 2Sa 3:15–17), and then finally
again of David (2Sa 3:15–17). Michal is introduced in a genealogical note
concerning Saul (1Sa 14:49–52). Appearing fifth and last in a list of
Saul's offspring (v 49), she is preceded by her three brothers (Jonathan, Ishvi,
and Malchishua) and an older sister (Merab). In the narrative, Michal loves
David, a fact which pleases her father Saul (1Sa 18:20).
The narrative concludes with a David whom Saul fears and hates
(v 29), but whom both Yahweh and Michal (or "Israel", LXX) love (v
HIS NAME BECAME WELL KNOWN: Cp Christ: Song 1:3; Heb
1:4; Phi 2:9.