Gen 14: Typ Abraham and the saints who defeat the armies of
the nations at "Armageddon", to free Lot (ie natural Israel), and then return to
Jerusalem to be blessed by Melchizedek (ie Christ).
AT THIS TIME: In AV, "it came to pass". Always prefaces
a time of trouble which ends in blessing: Rth 1:1; Isa 7:1; Jer 1:3; Est 1:1;
AMRAPHAEL OF SHINAR: "Hammurabi" of Babylon, writer of
code of laws (WHB, Arch Expl 14). Sig "powerful people" of the "enemies'
ARIOCH: "Servant of moon goddess".
ELLASAR: Larsa, town in southern Babylonia.
KEDORLAOMER: "Servant of the god Laomar".
TIDAL: "Formidable", "venerable". Prob head of the
barbarian tribes of Kurdish mountains.
GOIIM: Lit "nations", or "Gentiles".
SODOM: "Lime pits", impl burning!
GOMORRAH: "Heap", by impl "to chastise", by piling on
SHINAB: "A father has turned".
ADMAH: "Earthy" or "red earth" -- as "Adam".
SHEMEBER: "Passover to shame".
ZEBOIIM: "Beautiful" (as a gazelle).
BELA: "Make away", or "devour".
Lot finds the peaceful-looking valley embroiled in
SIDDIM: "Fields", suggesting a prosperous area on
shores of what was a fresh-water lake at this time (cp Gen 13:10), but which was
soon to become the "Salt Sea"!
12: Number of orderly government.
13: Number of disruption, rebellion.
14: 7 x 2; the covenant reinforced.
REPHAITES: "Giants"; also translated "dead ones": cp
ASHTEROTH KARNAIM: "The Ashtarte of two horns" (or two
mountain peaks), a city of Bashan (Deu 4:1). Venus often appears as a crescent
EMITES: "Terrible ones".
SHAVEH KIRIATHAIM: In AV mg, "the plain of Kiriathaim
-- or two cities".
HORITES: "Cave dwellers".
EL PARAN: "The oak of the place of caverns".
DESERT: That is, Sinai.
EN MISHPAT: "Spring of Judgment".
THE WHOLE TERRITORY OF THE AMALEKITES: Only the
Amalekites' country, for the tribe did not exist yet (see Gen
AMORITES: "Men of the mountains".
HAZAZON TAMAR: "Row of palms": En-gedi?
TAR PITS (SLIME PITS): "Springs of bitumen". From rt
"to ferment" or "to glow". Builders of Babel used tar for mortar (Gen 11:2).
"Asphalt" (Strong). Today, petroleum deposits are still to be found in
SOME... FELL INTO THEM: Entrapped in their own tar pits
(Psa 9:15). But the king of Sodom apparently escaped (v 17).
If we pursue the path of simple faith (as Abraham) we will
generally be thrown outside the world's circumstances. But if we abandon our
separate position to seek a name, a place, and a portion in this world (as did
Lot), we must expect to participate in its vicissitudes and convulsions (CHM
LIVING: Not just "sojourning", but now a permanent
THE HEBREW: A descendant of Heber (Gen 10:21), poss ref
to his right of inheritance. A "crosser-over" to a new way of life.
THE GREAT TREES: "Elon". Rt "strength" or "oak". The
Heb is consistently translated "tree(s)" in NIV, but "plain" in Gen 12:6; 13:18;
14:13; 18:1; Deu 11:30. Cp also Jdg 4:11; 9:6,37; 1Sa 10:3.
ESHCOL: "Grape cluster".
ALLIED (CONFEDERATE): "Baalim berith" = "lords (or
possessors) of the covenant". They were believers in God of Abr. Typ future:
House of Abraham (comprising Hebrew and Gentile in covenant relationship with
each other), with help of Yahweh, overthrow invading confederacy from north,
rescuing their kinsman (Israel after the flesh), and at last receiving blessing
from the "Melchizedek" king of righteousness at Salem.
RELATIVE: Lit "brother": "A bro is born for adversity"
(Pro 17:17). Abraham felt a closer kinship with Lot than family relationship:
"Brothers, if someone is caught in a sin, you who are spiritual should restore
him gently" (Gal 6:1). Redeem a kinsman out of difficulty (Lev
TRAINED: Or "instructed". Heb "chaniyk". Disciplined
and trained, ie in way of life (Pro 22:6). May sig "consecrated", as in Deu
20:5; 1Ki 8:63.
BORN IN HIS HOUSEHOLD: Typ born into household of
faith: blessed with faithful Abraham (Gal 3:26-28).
DAN: Sig "judgment".
Note the temptation Abraham must have had: conquer land now,
by several similar forays, for had not God conquered for him? And had not God
promised him the Land? This single battle, a foretaste of future glory, similar
to Christ's transfiguration. "The wicked man flees though no one pursues, but
the righteous are as bold as a lion" (Pro 28:1).
HOBAH: "Hiding", about 50 miles n of
The Sodomites, delivered from one enemy, but destined to
suffer a worse fate when they remain unrepentant.
VALLEY OF SHAVEH: "Valley of plains", in Kedron Valley,
ne of Jerusalem, called "Valley of Jehoshaphat" (Joel 3).
THE KING'S VALLEY (DALE): Where Absalom erected a
pillar: 2Sa 18:18.
Melch was king of Salem (ie king of peace): Heb 7:2; Gen
14:18, as is Jesus. See also Isa 9:7. Bread and wine (cp Last Supper). A priest
of God who came forth to bless Abr. The Heb author says lesser is always blessed
by greater. So if Melch typ Jesus, then Jesus is greater than even Abraham (see
Joh 8:56-58). Also, Abraham gave tithes to Melch; and Levi was still in the
loins of Abraham; thus Levi pd tithes to Melch. Also, the recipient of tithes is
greater than the one who gives. Thus Christ > Levi and the Levitical priests,
and therefore > the Law of Moses, which gave responsibility to the Levitical
"Love and faithfulness meet together; righteousness and peace
kiss each other" (Psa 85:10).
"The passing of the torch" (Candlish 142,143).
SALEM: Jerusalem (Psa 76:2: "His tent is in Salem, his
dwelling place in Zion"). "Salem" = "peace": Christ will be king of peace (Isa
9:6; Zec 6:13).
BREAD AND WINE: Tokens of the covenant (Luk 22:17,18).
Bread of strength and life; wine of joy and fellowship: Mat 26:26-29.
PRIEST: Order superior to Levitical (Heb 7:4-11).
Christ is high priest of the order (Heb 6:20; 7:11; Psa 110). Glorified saints
will be immortal associates (Rev 5:9,10)."Without genealogy, without beginning
of days or end of life, like the Son of God he remains a priest forever" (Heb
7:3). Incorporating the 3-fold privilege of ancient firstborn: authority,
GOD MOST HIGH (THE MOST HIGH GOD): "El Elyon". "El":
first time in Bible as name of God. "El" = "strength". "Elyon" = "elevation".
See Gen 11:11; WAbr 42,43.
Summary of work of an intercessor: for both God and
CREATOR: Attested reading in Ugaritic (NIV, Making 99);
cp Pro 8:22n. Also in v 22 here; cp Gen 4:1n.
The benediction of Melch prepares Abraham to meet the subtle
attack of the king of Sodom. A man blessed of his God can take nothing from his
Vv 22-24: Such austere separation might make Abraham the enemy
of the king of Sodom: cp Gen 15:1. Abraham here is showing a stubborn
independence of the world (the king of Sodom). He wants as little to do with
Sodom as poss. He also shows a jealousy for the honor of the God who blessed
him. In v 20, he is willing to deal with Melch. Other examples of righteous men
acting in this way are: Peter (Act 3); Elisha (2Ki 5); and Daniel (Dan 5:17). Cp
Gen 23, where Abraham is not willing to take the land for free from Ephron to
I HAVE RAISED MY HAND: Abraham had prayed, and had
decided already how to answer the king's proposal. Lifting up hand = a
ceremonial act of oath-taking.
CREATOR: As in v 19, attested reading in Ugaritic (NIV,
Making 99); cp Pro 8:22n.
Renouncing worldly advantage. God had made Abram rich (Gen
12:16; 13:2). God was his reward (Gen 15:1).
THREAD: "Chut", fillet, hair-ribbon worn by young
OR THE THONG OF A SANDAL: Cp sandal thongs in Deu 25:9;
Joh 1:25-27. "In the eyes of the king of Sodom, Abraham was his redeemer, having
saved him from the hand of the enemy, but Abraham was unwilling to accept that
recognition to the point of being unwilling to unloose even his shoelatchet
Abraham conceded that the work of redemption was God's and His alone" (Xd
WHAT MY MEN HAVE EATEN: "Don't you know that those who
work in the temple get their food from the temple, and those who serve at the
altar share in what is offered on the altar? In the same way, the Lord has
commanded that those who preach the gospel should receive their living from the
gospel" (1Co 9:13,14; Rom 13:7,8). "For the Scripture says, 'Do not muzzle the
ox while it is treading out the grain,' and 'The worker deserves his wages' "