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The Agora
Bible Commentary
2 Samuel

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

OVERVIEW

Author: Possibly Samuel, Nathan and Gad (see 1Ch 29:29).

Period: c 1100 BC (the birth of Samuel) to c 970 (the close of David's reign).

Title: In the original Heb text, 1 and 2 Samuel are counted as one book called "Samuel." In the LXX, the book was divided into two due to the length of the scrolls then in use. In the Greek OT, the Books of Samuel are referred to as the First and Second Books of Kingdoms. The Latin Vulgate entitles the same books the First and Second Books of Kings.

Summary: 1 Samuel is the first of two historical books that illustrate Israel's transition from a loose confederation of tribes to a strong and united nation. It portrays the anointing of the first king of Israel, Saul, by the prophet Samuel. It then recounts the degenerating reign of Saul and his loss of the throne to David, a man after God's own heart. 2 Samuel begins with the death of Saul and the ascension of David to the throne. The rest of the book records military conquests and political intrigues during David's reign. It concludes with the blessing of Solomon by David.

Key verses:

"We want a king over us. Then we will be like all the other nations, with a king to lead us and to go out before us and fight our battles" (1Sa 8:19–20).

"When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom. He is the one who will build a house for my Name and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever" (2Sa 7:12–13).

OUTLINE

1. David, king of Hebron (2Sa 1-4)

  1. David mourns for Saul and Jonathan (2Sa 1:1-27)
  2. David is anointed king of Judah (2Sa 2:1-7)
  3. Ishbaal king of Israel (2Sa 2:8-11)
  4. The battle of Gibeon (2Sa 2:12-32)
  5. Abner defects to David (2Sa 3:1-21)
  6. Abner Is killed by Joab (2Sa 3:22-39)
  7. Ishbaal is assassinated (2Sa 4:1-12)
2. David, king at Jerusalem (2Sa 5-10)

  1. David is anointed king of all Israel (2Sa 5:1-5)
  2. Jerusalem is made capital of the united kingdom (2Sa 5:6-16)
  3. Philistine attack is repulsed (2Sa 5:17-25)
  4. David brings the ark to Jerusalem (2Sa 6:1-23)
  5. God's covenant with David (2Sa 7:1-17)
  6. David's prayer (2Sa 7:18-29)
  7. David's wars (2Sa 8:1-14)
  8. David's officers (2Sa 8:15-18)
  9. David's kindness to Mephibosheth (2Sa 9:1-13)
  10. The Ammonites and Arameans are defeated (2Sa 10:1-19)
3. David's personal life (2Sa 11; 12)

  1. David commits adultery with Bathsheba (2Sa 11:1-13)
  2. David has Uriah killed (2Sa 11:14-27)
  3. Nathan condemns David (2Sa 12:1-15)
  4. Bathsheba's child dies (2Sa 12:16-23)
  5. Solomon is born (2Sa 12:24-25)
  6. The Ammonites are crushed (2Sa 12:26-31)
4. Trouble in David's court (2Sa 13-20)

  1. Amnon and Tamar (2Sa 13:1-22)
  2. Absalom avenges the violation of his sister (2Sa 13:23-39)
  3. Absalom returns to Jerusalem (2Sa 14:1-24)
  4. David forgives Absalom (2Sa 14:25-33)
  5. Absalom usurps the throne (2Sa 15:1-12)
  6. David flees from Jerusalem (2Sa 15:13-31)
  7. Hushai becomes David's spy (2Sa 15:32-37)
  8. David's adversaries (2Sa 16:1-4)
  9. Shimei curses David (2Sa 16:5-14)
  10. The counsel of Ahithophel (2Sa 17:1-4)
  11. The counsel of Hushai (2Sa 17:5-14)
  12. Hushai warns David to escape (2Sa 17:15-29)
  13. The defeat and death of Absalom (2Sa 18:1-18)
  14. David hears of Absalom's death (2Sa 18:19-32)
  15. David mourns for Absalom (2Sa 19:1-8)
  16. David is recalled to Jerusalem (2Sa 19:9-18)
  17. David's mercy to Shimei (2Sa 19:19-23)
  18. David and Mephibosheth meet (2Sa 19:24-30)
  19. David's kindness to Barzillai (2Sa 19:31-43)
  20. The rebellion of Sheba (2Sa 20:1-26)
5. Appendix (2Sa 21-24)

  1. David avenges the Gibeonites (2Sa 21:1-14)
  2. Exploits of David's men (2Sa 21:15-22)
  3. David's song of thanksgiving (2Sa 22:1-51)
  4. The last words of David (2Sa 23:1-7)
  5. David's Mighty Men (2Sa 23:8-39)
  6. David's census of Israel and Judah (2Sa 24:1-9)
  7. Judgment on David's sin (2Sa 24:10-17)
  8. David's altar on the threshing floor (2Sa 24:18-25)
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