Lev 23: "The walk of fellowship... relates to the essential
festivals that the Israelites were called upon to observe... The festivals are
defined as 'set times' appointed by Yahweh. At those times Israel 'met' with God
in the various particulars in which He was revealed to the people.
"In addition, the festivals of Lev 23 set forth the purpose of
Yahweh as a prophecy foreshadowing developments to be revealed at the 'set
times' as He appoints, as follows: (1) The Sabbath [v 3] -- with its typical
week -- emphasizes the purpose of Yahweh to be consummated at the millennium,
the seventh from creation (see Exo 20:11). (2) The Passover [vv 5-8; Exo 12:16]
speaks of separation, deliverance, and redemption: the means whereby the
millennium can be attained. It is fulfilled in 'Christ our Passover'. (3) The
Feast of weeks [Num 28:26] commemorates the giving of the Law (Exo 19:1). The
antitype of this was the preaching at Pentecost. (4) The Day of Atonement [v 27;
Num 29:7] provides the means of forgiveness when the law was broken, suggesting
the Judgment Seat of Christ. (5) The Feast of Tabernacles [vv 35,36] introduces
the harvest rejoicing, as typical of the ingathering of all the redeemed in the
"It is important to notice that the festivals foreshadow the
divinely directed steps towards salvation. First there is separation, then
acknowledgment of the requirements of law, and obedience, the covering provided
on the national day of judgment, and finally rejoicing at the ingathering of the
harvest, anticipating the final joy of the future" (Expos).
SACRED ASSEMBLIES: The AV has, most expressively, "holy
convocations". These were meetings of a religious character as distinguished
from "congregations", which were more general, dealing with political and legal
THE DAY AFTER THE SABBATH: Not the day following the
weekly sabbath of the Passover week, but the day following the great feast day,
no matter what day of week it fell on. Thus the day after sabbath = 16th Nisan
(Temple 257). Cp vv 24,32,39. 16th Abib = day of Christ's resurrection (John
This is fitting, in that Jesus was the "firstfruits" (cp 1Co
15:23), and through him, we also are to be "a kind of firstfruits" (Jam
Vv 15-22: 3rd Holy convocation. Called "feast of weeks" (Exo
34:22), "feast of harvest" (Exo 23:16), day of firstfruits (Num 28:26), and
Pentecost (in NT).
TWO LOAVES: Jews and Gentiles, both to be finally
admitted to the covenant -- through the preaching of the gospel.
YEAST: Corruption; sin: a humble recognition of
sinfulness. Also, Lev 7:13. Christ came in flesh of sin.
Vv 23-25: Fourth holy convocation: Feast of
SEVENTH MONTH... TRUMPET BLASTS: Cp the 7th trumpet of
Rev: "the finishing of the mystery of God" (Rev 10:7). "The dead shall be
raised" (1Co 15:52; 1Th 4:13-17).
Vv 26-32: 5th holy convocation: Day of atonement; 10th day of
7th month. The day of judgment, when each man afflicts his own soul: Rom 14:10;
THE TENTH DAY OF THIS SEVENTH MONTH: This, the only day
of the year when regular daily temple sacrifices were suspended (Ber 66:207; Lev
16:17). The High Priest alone went about his special duties in the Holy
"A strict fast was commanded, a solemn affliction of soul in
which all have to take part. Even strangers who happen to be in Israel at the
time are required to conform... Could there be anything else akin to this
experience? Men often feel a nervous tension when they have to enter the
presence of a human king. At such a time they would not forget any of the
instruction they have received from courtiers. Yet with amazing perverseness
they may be free from all such strain when they approach God. They are quite at
ease so long as there is nothing seen or heard to arouse fear. They may address
the Creator with thoughts only half in attendance and with a ready forgetfulness
of heaven's etiquette. They even resent and resist the most reasonable claim
that God will be honoured and sanctified in those who approach Him. It seems
that only drastic judgements can teach men this elementary lesson. Aaron had
suffered in this matter, through the death of his sons [Lev 10], and he will not
forget" (IC, Tes 73:11,12).
See Zec 12:10.
Vv 30-43: 6th and 7th of 7 holy convocations: 1st day of Feast
of Tabernacles (15th day of 7th month) and 1st day after end of Feast (22nd
A SABBATH OF REST: "Sabbath of sabbath", a great
See Zec 8:20-23; 14:16.
THE CLOSING ASSEMBLY: The final day of the cycle. On
the very last "final day" Jesus stood up at said: "If any man thirst, let him
come unto me and drink" (Joh 7:37). A true new beginning!